Color theory is used in all beauty industries including hair, makeup, fashion, and more. However, color theory for permanent makeup is defined by what a color looks like below the skin versus on the surface of the skin due to skin undertones. Our skin acts as a film. The color presented when fully healed is not the same as when originally applied. This is because once fully healed the pigment settles under the skin and the color is seen through the film, meaning through our skin tone.
Here is the formula:
Skin undertone + Color applied = Healed result.
There are 3 skin undertones:
A good way to determine your undertone is to look for any red in your skin.
Red (warm based pigment) on red skin (warm undertone) will result in red brows.
Blue (cool based pigment) on blue skin (cool undertone) will result in blue brows.
To avoid this colors are modified using the opposite color of one's skin undertone resulting in neutral colors. Many pigments formulated for permanent makeup are pre modified.
Why do colors fade to red and blue?
In 1975, dermatologist, Thomas B. Fitzpatrick created a classification system to predict sensitivity to UV light. The scale ranges from 1 -6 from the fairest to the darkest. The fairer the skin and lower the number, the more sensitivity to UV rays. The higher the number and more melanin in the skin, the less sensitive to UV rays.
Permablend is the most popular brand of hybrid pigments used in permanent makeup. Hybrid pigments contain both organic and inorganic elements which help maintain color balance.
In food, organic refers to zero pesticides. In chemistry, organic refers to using organic materials versus materials developed in a lab. Iron oxide is an inorganic ingredient found in many natural makeup products.
Iron Oxide based pigments are inorganic and made in a lab. They
Carbon-based pigments are organic.
Titanium dioxide is an inorganic compound, meaning synthetically made in a lab, and used as a bonding agent in many pigments.
Eyeliner tattoo ink can be either carbon based or iron oxide based.
1. Carbon based looks darker and bolder yet there is a greater risk of color migration due to smaller molecule size.
2. Iron oxide based sits closer to the surface due to larger particles and has less risk of migration but will fade faster.
Our skin is like a filter. The color seen underneath the skin does appear the same as the color seen on the surface. Just like our blood is red but our veins appear blue or green due to skin undertones. The color applied, will be seen in combination with the skin's undertone once fully healed, therefore must be pre modified to stay true to color.
What to know about choosing a lip color.
This process is called dark lip neutralization.
Dark toned lips often look darker before looking lighter when using the neutralization process. This is because the darker tones show through until the pigment is fully settled into the skin. Once the color settles it neutralizes and cancels out the darker tones.